henry ii, holy roman emperor

Returning to Magdeburg, Germany from southern Italy to celebrate Easter, Henry II fell ill in Bamberg, Bavaria. Earlier in 1013, Henry signed a peace treaty with Duke Bolesław I of Poland at Merseburg. As a consequence of their military alliance, Henry II halted Christianization efforts among the Slavic peoples. He succeeded his father as Duke of Bavaria in 995 as \"Henry IV\… Unlike his predecessors, Henry II was unwilling to show clemency to those dukes who had rebelled against his authority. John XVIII reigned as Pope from 1003 until 1009. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. No kind of information is excluded, but the fullest details refer to the bishopric of Merseburg, and to the wars against the Wends and the Poles. The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata. On the march across the Alps, Henry was accompanied by his wife, Queen Cunigunde and a number of clerics. Supported by his tribal allies, he waged several campaigns against Poland, until in 1018, at Bautzen, he made a lasting compromise peace with the Poles. In 1017, aided by Norman mercenaries, the Lombard noble Melus of Bari led a successful rebellion against Byzantine control of Apulia. To install click the Add extension button. Henry II (6 May 973 – 13 July 1024), also known as Saint Henry, Obl. Their marriage being childless, the Saxon dynasty of the Ottonians died with Henry.[35]. At Merseburg, Jaromír promised to hold Bohemia as a vassal under Henry II, definitively incorporating Bohemia into the Holy Roman Empire. Near the end of 1013, Henry II gathered his army at Augsburg to march into Italy. He granted numerous and lavish donations of imperial regalia and land to the monasteries and dioceses of the Empire; in fact, no other Holy Roman sovereign was named as often in the memorial records. Whereas Otto III had promoted a policy of "Restoration of the Roman Empire" (Renovatio imperii Romanorum), Henry II sought a policy of "Restoration of the Frankish Kingdom" (Renovatio regni Francorum). The Byzantine troops could not be forced into a pitched battle, and Henry II was forced to turn back, his army weakened by diseases and suffering heavy losses. Pilgrim did capture Pandulf IV of Capua and extract oaths of allegiance from both Capua and the Principality of Salerno, but all three divisions failed to take Troia. In exchange for this surrender, Henry II allowed Herman II to remain Duke of Swabia until his death the following year, after which, although recognizing the minor Hermann III as his father's titular successor, Henry II effectively assumed all power over the Duchy himself. (de); Генрых II Святы (be); Хајнрих II Свети (sr-ec); 亨利二世 (zh); Hindrik II de Hillige (fy); ჰაინრიხ II (ka); ハインリヒ2世 (ja); هنري التانى (arz); היינריך השני, קיסר האימפריה הרומית הקדושה (he); II Һайнрих (tt); 亨利二世 (wuu); Henrik II Pyhä (fi); Enrico II del Sacro Romano Impero (it); Hendrik II (vls); Heinrich II (et); Keizer Hendrik II de Heilige (nl); 亨利二世 (zh-hans); Hajnrih II Sveti (sr-el); 亨利二世 (zh-tw); Henri II (sw); Henrique II, Sacro Imperador Romano (pt); Imperatorius Henrikas II (lt); Henrik II. Together with Papal primacy, differences over this doctrine were among the primary causes of the Great Schism of the Church in 1054.[17][18]. But the Imperial army suffered heavy losses throughout the campaign. He succeeded his father as Duke of Bavaria in 995 as "Henry IV". As the funeral procession moved through the Duchy of Bavaria in February 1002, Henry met the procession in Polling, just north of the Alps. New York: Henry Holt and company. For most of Henry II's campaigns against Poland and the Byzantine Empire, the cleric princes constituted the largest contingent. From Germany he launched a second campaign against Boleslaw, allying with the pagan Liutitians against the Christian Poles. [16] Bolesław I also refused to pay tribute to Germany. Heribert, however, had sent these ahead of the procession, possibly out of distrust of Henry and possibly because he favored the succession of his relative Duke Herman II of Swabia as the next king. ." With his conquest west of the Oder River in 1002, his domain stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Carpathian Mountains. Henry II, opposed to Otto III's eastern policies, reversed Imperial policy towards the east,[14] resulting in the deterioration of the excellent relations Germany and Poland had enjoyed during Otto III's reign, particularly its relationship with Bolesław I of Poland. This "Imperial–Church System" reached its climax under Henry II.  | Last modifications, Copyright © 2012 sensagent Corporation: Online Encyclopedia, Thesaurus, Dictionary definitions and more. The Polish Duke accused Henry II of instituting the attack, and relations between the two countries were severed. The rule of Henry II has been characterized as a period of centralized authority throughout the Holy Roman Empire.

As a key element of this policy, the Ottonians sought to strengthen ecclesiastical authorities, chiefly bishops and abbots, at the expense of the secular nobility. His attempt at conquering the city failed, however, and he was forced to retreat back to Poland.[20]. In 1012, a second peace treaty between Germany and Poland was signed.

Henry did, however, lead three expeditions into Italy to ensure imperial dominion over the peninsula: twice to suppress secessionist revolts and once to challenge the Byzantine Empire for dominance over southern Italy. In return for his submission to the child king, Henry was restored as Duke of Bavaria. With an infant as ruler and a political crisis to address, the Western Empire was unable to challenge Byzantine dominance.

As king, Henry encouraged the German bishops to reform the practices of the Church in accordance with canon law. He was succeeded by Pope Sergius IV from 1009 to 1012. All rights reserved. Though his main objective had been missed, Henry left the south in the knowledge that western imperial authority still extended that far. Mission work among the Slavs of the region had previously been conducted by the Imperial Abbey at Fulda as part of the Diocese of Würzburg. At the Polish city of Poznań, the German forces were ambushed by the Polish army and suffered significant losses. With this defeat, Henry II was ready to end the war and begin serious peace negotiations with Bolesław I. regi litteras mittit, 1008, Coats of arms of Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor, Evangeliar Heinrichs II - Biblioteca apostolica Vaticana - Ottobon Lat.74, Illuminated manuscripts made for Emperor Henry II, Patronage of Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor in miniatures, Paintings of Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor in sculpture, Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor, on stained-glass windows, Beilngries -- Schenkungsurkunde Kaiser Heinrich II - 1007.jpg, Capobianchi Enrico II denari Rivista italiana di numismatica 1896 (page 158 crop).jpg, Design for Organ Shutters, parts 1 & 2, by Hans Holbein the Younger.jpg, Heilige Hendrik van Duitsland Heiligen (serietitel), RP-P-BI-2750.jpg, Icones imperatorvm romanorvm, ex priscis numismatibus ad viuum delineatae, and breui narratione historicâ (1645) (14560072158).jpg, Ingres - Carton pour les vitraux de la chapelle Saint-Ferdinand saint Henri, empereur d'Allemagne, 1842.jpg, Inner Panels of Organ Shutters at Basel Cathedral, after Hans Holbein the Younger.jpg, Kaisersaal Frankfurt am Main, Nr. [32] A key element of this policy was to grant land and bestow the title of Prince of the Empire (Reichsfürst) to appointed bishops and abbots at the expense of the secular nobility.

Between 1012 and 1018 Thietmar of Merseburg wrote a Chronicon, or Chronicle, in eight books, which deals with the period between 908 and 1018. Henry did, however, lead three expeditions into Italy to enforce his feudal claim (Honor Imperii), twice to suppress secessionist revolts and once to address Byzantine attempts to obtain dominance over southern Italy. The new alliance with the Western Slavs against Poland was controversial, however. The elder Henry came into conflict with his cousin Holy Roman Emperor Otto II, in 974.

Corrections? World history. It will enhance any encyclopedic page you visit with the magic of the WIKI 2 technology. Under the regal name of "King Henry II", he appeared before the Saxons in mid-July in full regal apparel. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Henry occupied Verona and was crowned rex Italiae (King of Italy) at Pavia on 15 May 1004, by the Archbishop of Milan, Arnulf II, with the famous Iron Crown. Feast: July 15. His attempt at conquering the city failed, however, and he was forced to retreat back to Poland. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. Saint Henry's name, which does not appear in the Tridentine Calendar, was inserted in 1631 in the Roman Calendar as a commemoration within the celebration of Saint Anacletus on 13 July, the day of his death and the traditional day for his celebration on a local level.

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