Accessed July 18, 2013. http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/IEDIndex3.cfm?tid=5&pid=57&aid=6, http://www.eia.gov/countries/regions-topics.cfm?fips=South China Sea, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/13/world/asia/us-negotiates-expanded-military-role-in-philippines.html?ref=philippines&_r=0, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.UnitedStatesE.COMM.KT.OE/countries/1W?display=graph, http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/UNCLOS-TOC.htm. Reyes, Karl John. The revolution overthrew the autocratic rule of President Ferdinand Marcos. Accessed July 23, 2013. The two countries increased high-level visits in the early 1990s. They agreed to increase bilateral trade to $60 billion by 2016. 1, May 2013.http://www.canalyt.com/protectionist-clauses-in-the-philippine-constitution-chill-foreign-direct-investment/. As a result of the negative publicity that began with a parliamentary investigation prior to Arroyo’s departure, China hastily cancelled its tainted negotiations for an international airport contract at the former Clark Air Base, and replaced its Ambassador to the Philippines in September 2007.  Richard Javad Heydarian, “China splits Philippine politics,” Asia Times Online, October 10, 2012,http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/NJ10Ae02.html#.UHRJpnR-plY.twitter, accessed 08/15/13. Attempting to find a diplomatic middle-path between China and the West simply encourages Chinese expansionism. This requires a reasonable interpretation of laws that benefit the Philippine nation. Public perception of such extreme levels of influence are likely due to the proliferation of small Chinese entrepreneurs in the public eye, for example wholesalers of grain, fertilizer, and household goods.
0000064967 00000 n  Half-measures such as bilateral cooperation with the United States on terrorism and training, or temporary refueling rights for United States and Japanese naval vessels, will be insufficient to guarantee United States support of the Philippines in case of conflict with China, and therefore insufficient to deter China from progressive encroachments in the South and East China Seas.
Calica, Aurelia. Senators, on the other hand, are elected nationally, aspire to the presidency, and are relatively independent. United States Energy Information Administration.
Key factors that impede the Philippines from achieving an enforceable international legal solution to the South China Sea dispute are certain clauses in the Philippine Constitution, excessive Chinese economic and diplomatic influence in Philippine politics, and reasonable caution on the part of the United States to committing to defend the South China Sea against China.  Rolando Dy, “Philippine Agri-Food Trade: Smuggling or Under-reporting?,” accessed 7/22/2013. Shortly after signing a Memorandum of Understanding on Defense Cooperation with the Philippines that year, China donated to the Philippines RMB 30 million in military equipment and loaned the country $450 million for the North Luzon Railway System (North Rail). The constitutional provision allowing the House to set the issue before a national vote could be useful in keeping Chinese influence, and bases, at a minimum in the future. Asia. A military vehicle, allegedly on orders of the President, rammed the vehicle of his primary accuser, Senator Defensor-Santiago, putting her in hospital.  Renato Cruz de Castro, “China, the Philippines, and U.S. Claims by China to the South China Sea in 1992, and the occupation of Mischief Reef in 1995, cooled the relationship and caused the Philippines to try a middle path between China and the United States. “The Spratlys Deal: Selling Out Philippine Sovereignty?” Alternate Forum for Research in Mindanao, March 17, 2008.http://www.afrim.org.ph/m_news-page.php?nid=2198#.UgA77I3FVih.
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